Claims made regarding discrimination or disparate impact require statistical analysis when the discrimination isn’t provable by statements or writings available. For cases of disparate impact in fair housing, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) states in their guidelines that the only way to prove disparate impact is through statistical analysis.
When we look at multiple events, multiple people, and the activities of a firm or a person, we can examine patterns of activity. Hiring, firing, promotions, awards, and opportunities for advancement can all be reviewed to examine whether a pattern exists that is discriminatory against women, minorities, or older workers in employment situations. There are also external sources of data available, like employment statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics or the Bureau of the Census.
If we are considering fair housing and fair lending, sales and rentals in the real estate market can also show patterns, especially when viewed in light of other characteristics that an individual has, like credit scores, past history in the housing market, and other quantifiable measures. We help examine whether a pattern exists in an employment situation or in market. External sources of data can include county tax appraisal data and information from the American Community Survey.